Organic Compounds

General Characteristics of Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds
 
Organic
Inorganic
complex simple
6 million compounds 300,000 compounds
low melting points high melting points
doesn't conduct electricity conducts electricity
consist of molecules consist of ions

Abundance and Importance of Carbon

Abundance
    1.  exists in pure and combined forms
    2.  17th in abundance by mass
    3.  present in all living things
    4.  present in all fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas, wood

Structure and Bonding
    1.  sp3 hybridized
    2.  forms 4 covalent bonds
    3.  join together with each other and similar elements to form chains

Allotropic Forms
    Allotropes - two or more forms of the same elements in the same phase

    1.  Diamond
        a.  made at high tempperatures and pressures
        b.  synthetic - 55,000 atm at 2000 o C  for hours
        c.  hardness comes from its structure
        d.  excellent conductor of heat

    2.  Graphite
        a.  known for softness and ability to absorb heat
        b.  bonded in layers which slide past each other
 
        Uses of Graphite
        a.  good lubricant
        b.  making pencil "lead" - a mixture of graphite and clay
        c.  sporting goods

Hydrocarbon Compounds

    hydrocarbons - organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen

3 Types of Hydrocarbons
    1.  Alkanes - all single bonds
        General Formula -  CnH2n+2      n = # of carbons
        Naming Alkanes - use the ending "ane"
 
prefix # of Carbons
meth 1
eth 2
prop 3
but 4
pent 5
hex 6
hept 7
oct 8
non 9
dec 10

    2.  Alkenes - have at least one double bond
         General Formula - CnH2n
        Naming Alkenes - use the ending "ene"

    3.  Alkynes - have one triple bond
         General Formula - CnH2n-2
        Naming Alkynes - use the ending "yne"

Saturated and Unsaturated Compounds

1.  unsaturated - contain double and triple bonds; alkenes andalkynes are unsaturated
2.  saturated - contain only single bonds; alkanes are unsaturated

Cyclic and Aromatic Compounds
    1.  cyclic  hydrocarbons  - single bonds; bonded in a ring
         example:  cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclobutane

        Rings containing 3-20 carbons are found in nature
 
 
 

    2.  aliaphatic hydrocarbons - do not contain rings

    3.  arenes - saturated cyclic compounds.  (Incluces all cyclic compounds with only single bonds)
 

     4.  aromatics  - 6 carbon ring with alternating double bonds

        example:  benzene

Types of Formulas

    1.     molecular formula:  indicate the type and number of each atom in the compound, but doesn't show
           anything about the bonding.
 

    2.    Structural Formula:  indicates the complete 2-D structural of the compound, showing all bonds present.
 

    3.    condensed structural formula:  short-hand representations that leave the bond lines out, yet still indicating
            what is bonded to each carbon or other atom.
 

    4.   iosomers:  compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures and different
                            chemical properties.

        Cis and Trans Isomers - Geometric Isomers

         1.  Cis - same side of double bond
         2.  Trans - opposite side of double bond
 
 
 

Functional Groups
    functional group:  atom or group of atoms bonded to a hydrocarbon for a specific purpose