Definitions to know:
solution: homogenous mixture; uniform throughout
solvent: substance that does the dissolving; ** substance which is in greater quantity.
solute: substance that is dissolved; ** substance which is in smaller quantity.
Water is the most common solvent! Why?
1. Water is a polar molecule because of the lone pairs on oxygen.
2. Thes lone pairs of electrons are attracted to ions on crystal surfaces.
This attraction seperates the ions from each other and the crystalline
dissociation: seperation of ions from each other.
solvation: occurs when the solvent surrounds th particles of solute.
that break up (ionize or dissociate) in water to produce ions.
They are able to conduct electric current. They usually consist of ionic compounds.
(Acids and bases are electrolytes)
that do not break apart and do not conduct electricity.
They are usually covalent compounds with the exception of acids.
Main rule of solubility -- like dissolves like
1. Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes.
2. Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.
hydration: occurs when water dissolves a polar solute.
III. Solids, Liquids, and Gases in Solutions
Possible Solution Combinations
miscibility: the ablity of two liquids to be mixed.
Water and acetic acid are miscible. (vinegar)
Oil and water are immiscible. (They don't mix)
IV. Solution Equilibrium
solution equilibrium: occurs when the rates of particles leaving and returning to solution are equal.
3 Types of Solutions
1. saturated: when undissolved solute is in equilibrium with the dissolved solute.
2. unsaturated: contains less than the saturated amount of solute for that temperature.
contains more solute than a saturated solution can normally hold.
solubility: the quantity of solute that will dissolve in a specified amount of solvent at a specific temperature.
V. Factors that Affect Rates of Solution
- increases solubility
- brings solvent into contact with more of the surface area of the solute
- if temperature increases, solubility increases.
- An increase in kinetic energy, increases the frequency and force of collisions of solvent and solute which breaks solute apart.
- smaller particles dissolve faster because they have less suface area
VI. Concentration of Solution
concentrated solution: large amount of solute in small amount of solvent
dilute solution: small amount of solute in large amount of solvent
Determining Concentration by Different Methods
1. Molarity (M)
Molartiy = moles of solute
liters of solvent
example: What is the molarity of a solution in which 58 g of NaCl are dissolved in 1.0 L of solution?
58 g NaCl | 1 mol NaCl =
1 mol NaCl
| 58 g NaCl
Molarity = 1 mol NaCl
Molarity = 1 M NaCl
2. Molality (m)
Molality = moles of solute
Kg of solvent
Example: What is the molality of a solution in which 3.0 moles of NaCl is dissolved in 1.5 Kg of water?
Molality = 3.0 moles of NaCl
1.5 Kg of water
Molality = 2.0 m NaCl
3. Normality (N)
Normality = Molarity x total positive oxidation number of solute
Example: What is the normality of 3.0 M of H2SO4 ?
Normality = 3.0 x total positive oxidation number
total positive oxidation number = +1(2) = 2 This is because hydrogen's oxidation number is +1 and there are 2 hydrogens.
Normality = 3.0 x 2
Normality = 6.0 N
VII. Types of Mixtures
1. Colloids: mixtures composed of two phases of matter
Two phases are:
-- dispersed phase - particles are larger than particles in solution
but smaller than suspensions
-- continous phase
Classification of Colloids
aerosols: liquids and solids dispersed in gases. Examples: fog and smoke
foams: gases dispersed in liquids and solids. Examples: whipped cream and marshmallows
emulsions: liquids dispersed in other liquids or solids.
Examples: mayonnaise - liquid emulsion
cheese - solid emulsion
sols: solids dispersed in liquids or other solids.
Examples: jelly and paint
2. Suspensions: dispersed phase contains particles much larger than in colloids or solutions.
*** Because the particles in a suspension are so large, the particles are
suspended but eventally settle out upon standing.
VIII. Properties of Solutions, Colloids, and
|Do not settle out||Do not settle out||Settle out upon standing|
|Pass unchanged through ordinary filter paper||Pass unchanged through ordinary filter paper||Separatated by filter ordinary filter paper|
|Pass unchanged through a membrane||Pass unchanged through a membrane||Separated by membrane|
|Do not scatter light||Scatter light||Scatter light|
the ability of colloids and suspensions to scatter light
examples: 1. If a window blind in opened in a dark room, suspended dust particles scatter light.
2. If a search light is used in the night air, light is scattered by suspended water droplets.
Motion: chaotic movement of particles in a colloid or suspension
example: Hitting two chalkboard erasers together allows you to see the chaotic movement of suspended